A "citation" is the information used to trace a book, article, or web page from a referral back to the original published source.  A citation is also a means of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works when those ideas support or influence others' research.  Citations are found in the bibliographies of articles and books, in databases, and often in online sources that are dependent on research, such as Wikipedia.

Any time you quote, paraphrase, or summarize ideas that are not your own, you must cite those influences.  Citing the materials you use in your research can reduce charges of plagiarism and intellectual theft.

Article citations include:

  • Author(s)
  • Article Title
  • Journal or Magazine name
  • Year & month (if available)
  • Volume and Issue number
  • Page numbers
  • doi number (for recent articles)

Book citations include:

  • Author(s)
  • Book Title
  • Publisher and Place of Publication
  • Year of publication

Web page citations usually include:

  • Title of page
  • Author (if any)
  • URL / internet address
  • Date accessed